SSD 256GB SSD technology in reverse? Why SSDs are getting worse and worse at speed and longevity

SSD 256GB SSD technology in reverse? Why SSDs are getting worse and worse at speed and longevity

SSD 256GB SSD technology in reverse? Why SSDs are getting worse and worse at speed and longevity

DDR 4 8gbSSD OEMssd 256GB Note: There is no advertising fee charged for this article! All product recommendations represent only The personal views of XiaoShussd 256GB, welcome to refute. This article also applies to SD cards and USB flash drives.

SSD recommendations are at the end.SSD 256GB

want to increase computer speeds by SSD 256GB , replacing HDD (mechanical hard disk) with SSD [SSDs] should be the most cost-effective option, our CPU can handle billions of cycles per second, but most of the time it is waiting for the disk to transfer data to it.

SSD 256GB】now the capacity of SSDs continues to rise, and the price is decreasing, making the call for the elimination of HDDs louder and louder, but the evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of a hard disk should be considered from multiple dimensions, if only the pursuit of speed, and finally often fall into the invisible trap. This article will give you a detailed introduction to the aspects you should pay attention to when buying an SSD so that you can buy the most suitable SSD hard drive for you.

Ps: It doesn’t matter if you don’t look at this paragraph, SSD-like technology appeared as early as the 1950s, and by the 1970s and 1980s, it was used in high-end supercomputing. However, it was still very expensive at the time, and it could only buy a capacity of about 2–20 MB for 5-figure dollars. Later, SSD technology was also applied in the military and aerospace fields, and gradually appeared in consumer devices in 1990, but the life expectancy was “only” about 10 years, and it was not until Windows 10 was released in 2015 that it officially began to become popular.

is called an SSD because it does not have moving parts and rotating platters like traditional mechanical hard disks, and the internal parts of the SSD are fixed.

data in SSDs is stored in a memory chip called “flash memory” in SSDs. There are two types of flash memory: NOR and NAND. Both flash memory chips consist of a large number of floating-gate transistors, which are the smallest units that store data, just as the magnetic material in a mechanical hard disk represents 1 and 0. Transistors form a grid, and depending on the number of transistors in the grid, the capacity of a single grid is between 256kb-4MB.

the difference between NOR and NAND is the wiring method between the units. In NOR flash memory, the mesh cells are connected in parallel, and in NAND, they are connected in series. This means that NOR flash memories require more wires, so they are larger and more complex in structure. NAND uses fewer wires so that it can be packaged in higher density.

the result is that NAND flash memory costs less and can have more storage space in the same volume, which makes it more popular, and the products for individual consumers are NAND. NOR flash memory is suitable for use in low-density, high-speed read-only applications.

SSDs are faster than HDDs because the SSD’s master knows the exact location of all the meshes, so when the system needs to use a file, the SSD can give it directly, and the response time is in nanoseconds.

a simple comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of SSDs and HDDs:

SSDs are faster than HDDs. Obviously; SSDs are less likely to break. Because the inside of the HDD is a mechanical structure, the installation of shaking can damage it, but the SSD is more afraid of static electricity and short circuit; SSDs are quieter. Also because of the mechanical structure of the HDD, it is louder and hotter; HDDs are cheaper. The price of HDDs is approximately 1.4 – 2.1 gross per GB. SSDs are approximately 7 gross per GB; SSDs are more power efficient. If used on a notebook, it can improve battery life by an average of 45 minutes.

HDDs are more suitable for cold storage. The smallest unit of information stored by the SSD for a long time, the “electronic”, will be lost, resulting in data loss, and it is generally recommended to be powered on at least once a year. HDDs can stay off power for longer, but the result is lost.

many friends buy solid state only to see the capacity and speed and accidentally stepped on the sinkhole of “flash memory particles”. Flash particles are constantly being upgraded and iterated, in order of version: SLC, MLC, TLC, QLC, and QLC are the newest (but worst). The transistor is the smallest unit of storing data, you can think of the entire hard disk as a prison, each transistor unit is a cell, and the smallest unit of data storage, the electron (bit), is the prisoner in the cell. Naturally, the more inmates in a prison, the larger the hard drive capacity. In the SLC era, the number of prisoners was not large, and each prisoner could live in a single room, that is, only one data unit was placed in each unit; In the multi-layer unit MLC era, there were more prisoners (everyone’s demand for hard disk capacity increased), but the prison was so big, what to do? Only two prisoners can be held in one room, that is, each unit holds two data units;

the TLC era of the tertiary unit found that it was not enough, and began to lock up three prisoners in one room.

and the latest technology in QLC is quadruple room. We all understand the truth, the more people the more difficult to manage, the less efficient (slow to read and write), and the more people use a thing, the faster they lose (short life).

SLC is the original technology, it is low density, so the capacity is relatively small, but the fastest, and the service life is very long, but because it is too expensive, now basically only used in enterprise storage. The price is often thousands, tens of thousands;

MLC is a compromise option, although it is not as good as SLC in some aspects, after considering the price, capacity, life, and speed belongs to the most suitable products for individual consumers, do system disk or large file processing, about 3 times cheaper than SLC, XiaoShu is more recommended to use MLC to do system disk or store important data (no longer buy it and stop production);

TLC density is higher, although the use of caching technology, is still not as fast as the first two, and the life span is 2-10 times less than the former two. Suitable for ordinary consumers, used to make system disks, game disks, and temporary disks (U disks, portable hard disks, etc.) are no problem. The price is about half cheaper than MLC, XiaoShu is more recommended to use TLC to do system disks, warehouse storage movie games, etc.;

four-stage unit QLC, as the name suggests. Although consumers complain about QLC, they can’t stop the pace of manufacturers making money, and QLC’s SSDs are rapidly gaining popularity. XiaoShu does not recommend buying QLC.

SSD Every “technology upgrade” is the result of a trade-off, manufacturers are weighing costs and profits, consumers are weighing capacity and longevity, and capacity is doubled, but the problem is also rising exponentially.

SLC represents 0 or 1 (1 bit) with two voltage changes, MLC with 4 voltage changes for 11, 10, 01, 00 (2 bits), TLC with eight voltage changes (3 bits), QLC with 16 (4 bits). Each time the flash memory cell writes and modifies the data, it changes the voltage state of the electron, and each state change leads to the loss of isolated silicon oxides, which is the main cause of the shortened life.

LC can be erased for an average of 100,000 cycles. The MLC has only 35,000-10,000 cycles. The TLC is about 5000. And QLC, the manufacturer claims to be consistent with TLC, do you believe it? The normal read and write speed of most NVMe protocols (later) SSDs is around 1500 MB/s. But the popular QLC is only 80-160 MB/s (continuous write), which is slower than a mechanical hard drive. The life of the TLC should be more than 5 years, but the QLC is only 3-5 years, since the manufacturer has repeatedly stated that the new technology is good in all aspects, why do you have to repeatedly shorten the hard disk warranty time? Different particles for different markets and groups of people is no problem, but most merchants will not write the use of that kind of particles, because they want to sell different particles mixed, so that the “broken” new particles gradually replace the stable old particles, a few years ago we have a lot of MLC hard disks to choose from, now almost only Samsung is still producing MLC hard disks, higher profits but the poorer speed and life of TLC has occupied the market.

in addition flash memory used to be arranged in a single layer, but to reduce costs, manufacturers now almost all store single stacks, called 3D flash memory. It’s not unusual to know that most of the 3D flash is on the market right now. It is enough not to be fooled, there is no need to delve deeper.

flash memory particles have a high technical threshold, and their business model is the same as memory, usually, cooperation between multiple manufacturers, the division of labor is generally Fab (production) and Design house (design), and the final dominance must be in the hands of the producer (refer to Huawei and TSMC). Like SanDisk and Kingston, they all belong to Design houses and package sellers, and the real big guy is Fab, which provides them with flash memory particles.

manufacturers who can currently provide solid particles in batches are:

Samsung: the leader of the storage industry, the first in the global market share, the Samsung factory is on fire, and the global solid state is increasing in price;

Hynix: second only to Samsung, with complete production capacity;

WD: the faucet of mechanical hard disks, but after several acquisitions also can produce flash memory particles in-house;

Toshiba (renamed Armored Man in October)/SanDisk): Toshiba used to do memory and solid state, and later gave up the memory business, SanDisk strictly speaking does not have its own Fab, but it holds a stake in Toshiba, so most of the products are the same as Toshiba, with a different shell. (SanDisk has been acquired by Western Digital, and may also use Western Digital’s particles, but is closer to Toshiba);

magnesium: the main business is memory, in 2006 with Intel to cooperate in the production of solid-state particles, later dissolved but both mastered the solid-state particle research and development and production technology;

Intel: After teaming up with Magnesium Light to create its solid state, in addition to the traditional 3D structure, Intel and Magnesium Light also cooperated to develop a new structure.

companies above can be said to have mastered the lifeblood of global solids, and their products are their high-quality particles, belonging to the highest quality on the earth. But there are still so many global solid-state brands? Where do their particles come from?

the production of particles of SSDs is the same as that, with high process accuracy and great randomness, and it is not the same as everyone in a pot stew: CPU cost the same, so why not produce all i7?

particles are produced and undergo rigorous testing, and the results are divided into original (positive), white and black. The best quality of the original film will be pasted on their brand into the market, but white and black films can not be wasted, a small number will be used in their low-end products (Western green disk), and most of them will be sold to downstream manufacturers who do not have their production capacity, let them stick their cards to sell.

the same wafer, the original film only accounts for less than 1/2

larger downstream manufacturers can get the original film, white film, as for the black film, the data is priceless, the data is priceless…

Xiaoshu only recommends that you buy the products of the original film factory.

the master controller is equivalent to a solid-state CPU, which manages and controls the storage unit for reading and writing actions, allocates tasks reasonably to the storage unit, and is also a transit station between memory and hard disk. The master control directly affects the SSD experience and life, and to some extent, the importance and technical content of the master control are higher than that of flash memory.

so not all original film manufacturers have their master control, the current major master control manufacturers are: Samsung, Toshiba (armored man), Micron, Hynix, and Micron Intel, their flash memory and master control can be built.

but now more manufacturers besides Samsung choose to hand over the master control to specialized master control providers, such as Huirong, Qunlian, Yunlin, Zhiwei, and Ruiyu.

In addition, with the development of the domestic independent self-research strategy, many domestic master control manufacturers have begun to speak out, such as the domestic long-term storage particles that have been listed on Jingdong + The Guangweiyi Pro solid-state drive controlled by Lianyun. Although it is not as good as Samsung and other first-line manufacturers, it has surpassed many second-rate peeling manufacturers, which is the first step in the rise of giants. Interested friends can support it.

we only buy solid state, there is no need to study the master control in-depth, just remember to buy the original film of the big factory, because the big factory will not treat itself badly in the master control.

SSDs currently have three main form factors, which shape should be chosen depending on whether the motherboard slot is supported.

2.5-inch SATA: This is the most common type, measuring the same size as a notebook’s mechanical hard drive (2.5 inches), and all motherboards support the SATA interface for stress-free installation. It’s just that this site may not be fixed on some desktops, but this is not a problem.

M.2: This is a rookie in recent years and has become the standard for ultra-thin notebooks, but it is also popular on the desktop, its size is comparable to the memory module, most M.2 hard disk length and width are 80mm, and 22mm, but there are also smaller, pay special attention when purchasing.

Add-in Card (AIC): it uses the same PCIex4 or x16 interface as the graphics card, and is still much faster than SATA. However, if you want to use a unique display, you may not be able to put down the add-in card hard disk, even if you put it down, it will be very compact, affecting the heat dissipation.

it should be noted that NVMe often appears with M.2, but they are not a thing, M.2 is just the shape of the SSD, and NVMe refers to the interface form like SATA. The M.2 solid state also has a SATA interface.

NVMe is faster than SATA, with the latest SATA III with a maximum throughput of 600MB/s, while NVMe can be as high as 3500MB/s. So make sure your motherboard does support the NVMe interface before purchasing the NVMe M.2 solid state.

however, NVMe’s improvement over SATA can only be truly reflected in sequential reads/writes, saying that “only large file reading and writing is effective”, so you may not feel the difference between gaming and daily work. However, for video editing rendering and photo processing, NVMe has obvious advantages.

Now the system automatically aligns 4K, eliminating the need for specialized operations. This paragraph can be skipped. In ancient times, a sector of a hard disk was 512 bytes, and later the disk capacity increased, and the sector size was upgraded to 4096 bytes, that is, 4KB. 4K alignment is the starting sector of a partition aligned to the starting position of a 4K sector. Because of the characteristics of SSD flash particles, 4K alignment will greatly improve its read and write speed, so solid state initially needed 4K alignment, but now it is not necessary, the system will automatically 4K alignment.

if you are not at ease, you can use this method to check whether the computer is 4K aligned, and manually 4K aligned: a method of Windows 4K alignment.

capacity not only affects life but also affects read and write speed and lifetime. For example, the Samsung PM961 has a write speed of only 600MB/s for the 128GB version in the same situation, and 1100MB/s for 256GB, almost doubling.

and the master controller will allocate storage tasks to flash memory particles reasonably to ensure that the amount of tasks in each unit is the same, to avoid using only a certain unit and causing the unit to die of overwork, the larger the strength of the people, the greater the capacity, the fewer tasks are divided equally, and the natural life is longer.

128GB: try to avoid, this capacity of the hard disk due to the small number of memory modules tends to be the worst performance. In addition, this capacity can hardly do anything after installing the system, and it does not cost much money to upgrade to the next level.

250GB: this capacity is often used in the basic configuration of the notebook, the daily office is enough, and the economy can also be used with HDD, but Xiaoshu recommends the 500GB level.

500GB: the best price/performance ratio, and while 1TB is more attractive, 500 GB is just right in terms of price and capacity. You can save games and large files on HDD, or delete them when you run out.

>1TB: If you are an enthusiast who needs to store a lot of files or games, 1TB, 2TB, and 4TB does not matter, there is no cap.

MLC particles:

Samsung 970 Pro (m.2 interface)

Samsung 860 Pro (SATA interface)

TLC particles:

Samsung 970 EVO Plus

Samsung 970 EVO

Western Digital Black Disk SN750

armored man RD10/Toshiba RC500

Quote M9Pe

Picot M9 Plus

SanDisk Extreme High Speed Series

intel 760P

Western Digital Blue Disk SN550

cold knowledge

1, solid-state drive only refers to a physical form of hard disk existence, the principle, and technology of the solid-state drive we use on the computer is no different from the built-in storage of today’s mobile phones, it is flash + master control.

2, the era of traditional hard drives is not over. According to statistics, there are still 85% of the world’s equipment only uses mechanical hard disks, and most of the rest are SSDs and HDDs, and only a few devices that use SSDs. It is expected that SSD shipments will not exceed HDDs by 2021.

3, this article does not charge any advertising fees! All product recommendations only represent XiaoShu’s personal views, welcome to refute. DDR 4 8gbSSD OEM ssd 256GB